Archive for June, 2008

Linux Installation & Partitioning

June 23, 2008

Hey everybody !!

in this post we will talk about the Linux installation but before we start let’s see how does Linux deal with the hard disk.

Partitioning Scheme :-

First : the name of your hard disk is determined by the technology it uses and the way you connect it to your computer like that:-

  • ATA disk starts with (hd)

  • SATA or the SCSI disks starts with (sd).

But Fedora started to use (sd) for all HDDs starting from Fedora core 7 and UBUNTU also does that.

the next character is dedicated depending on your hard disk status so let’s assume that you had an ATA HDD, the scheme will be like that:-

  • hda primary master

  • hdb primary slave

  • hdc secondary master

  • hdd secondary slave

now let’s see how does the partitions names look like?

The data about your partitions is stored in the first sector of your hard disk which called the MBR (Master Boot Record) in 64 bytes only which is only enough to fully describe just 4 partitions. These partitions are called primary partitions and it takes number from 1 to 4. so lets assume that you have a primary master ATA disk then the partitions will look like that:-

  • hda1 the first primary partition

  • hda2 the second primary partition

  • hda3 the third primary partition

  • hda4 the fourth primary partition

if you need more partitions then you need to make an (Extended partition) which is a primary partition that is capable of holding other sub-partitions called (Logical partitions).

Note: Theoretically you can make unlimited amount of logical partitions in the extended partition but Linux limits that number to 59 in the IDE disks and 11 in SCSI disks.

Logical partitions takes numbers starts from 5. this means that (hda5) is the first logical partition in your disk whatever the number of your primary partitions is and the second logical partition will be (hda6) etc.

In the graph we can see that:-

  • hda1 and hda2 are the first two primary partitions.

  • hda3 is also a primary partition but it is an extended partition which only holds two logical partitions (hda5 and hda6).

  • hda5 is the first logical partition in the disk so takes number 5.

  • hda6 is the second logical partition in the disk so it takes number 6.

  • hda4 is the fourth primary partition so it has no relations with the logical ones and it takes number 4.

The root file system :-

Now let’s see what is the requirements to install Linux.

At least you need one partition to install Linux and this partition will be called the root file system which holds your data or link to it. So the root file system will be mounted as “ / “ (slash), and all other partitions will be mounted under it like that

now “dev” will be called “/dev” and “home” will be “/home” etc. and we will speak about the functionality of these main directories later.

You also can make any main directory of those a separate file system (partition) and it will be mounted under the root file system “/” and it will look like any other directory. That’s may be useful in some cases which also will be discussed later.

the file system that should be created on that partition should be (ext2 or ext3) file system but ext3 is more efficient.

SWAP area :-

You can start your installation with the root file system only, but if your RAM is small (256M or less) so you need to make a place to be considered as virtual memory. This area must be a separate partition – unlike Windows – this partition use’s the “swap” file system and it’s size should be twice as much as your RAM size for the best performance.

Installation :-

Now we can start the installation and as we said before we will work on the three major distributions. So we can’t be very verbose. So let’s speak about the most important and sensitive part of the installation which is Partitioning. And the rest of the installation is simple and easy to understand if you read the tips carefully.

I recommend that you should have a backup of your important data because there are two kinds of people, people who make backups and people who never delete a file. So, always have backups.

Lets Start Partitioning:

(more…)

WD Languages && Tools

June 23, 2008

As we defined in the last post the “web developer” the one how do the necessary programming code, so we are gonna talk about the programming languages && tools that any developer need to start.

first lets have a look at languages and techniques to develop a web site :

  • HTML // client side programming language
  • CSS   // to give your site the look and the stile
  • PHP   // as a server side programming language

and more …..

  • server side like /* PHP , ASP , JSP , Perl , Cold Fusion */
  • client side like  /* HTML , JS , CSS , XML , AJAX */

lets have a look at some tools you will need as a web developer , first of all you will need some good editors because its not a good thing to write your code in the notepad its just waste of time the good editor give you a highlight & outcompete &….more so it save your time  , bleave me you will need that time.

so have some editors

  1. for Linux
  2. for Windows

and the most important thing you need as a web developer is to get involved in a community of developers to help each other ,also search for tutorial and try to understand it , write your own code and try more and more , of course read books and stay up to date with the new tech and news in the field .

Start in Web Development

June 18, 2008

to start in web development first of all we have to define what is web development ? and who is web developer ?

lets have a closer look at the definitions in the web

Wiki defined “web development” as :

Web development is a broad term for any activities related to developing a web site for the World Wide Web or an intranet. This can include e-commerce business development, web design, web content development, client-side/server-side coding, and web server configuration

in another word

is a broad term for any activities related to developing a web site for the World Wide Web or an intranet.

i think its clear itself don’t need more talking

then what abut “web developer”?

(more…)

Starting with GIMP

June 17, 2008

Hello Everyone 😀

i’m going to talk about GIMP as i find this lesson is the most important part of the course … so this must be the beginning line

About GIMP:
GIMP is an acronym for “GNU Image Manipulation Program” … but that doesn’t mean that it’s working on GNU-Linux only …. it’s working on Unix (Linux, FreeBSD & Sun Solaris), Mac OS, Windows

if you were using Adobe Photoshop … i’m sure that GIMP would be a good Open Source Alternative as they work with the same tools and features … except small difference in Filters and Brushes.

you can visit the GIMP site and see the features

Why GIMP?!

The Main Advantages of GIMP are:

  • Easy to work with … as it supports many features that are important for Designers
  • Open Source …. anybody can do whatever he wants in the source code
  • Free Of Charge … no more bothering with Serials or Cracks … and i think the Super Advantage that it can’t be Stolen! 😆 😆
  • as there are no such a program in GNU/Linux Supports such Features …. the GIMP is still the best and the most powerful program in Linux Systems

GIMP History:

at July 1995 … Peter Mattis sent a message to some groups to tell them that he want to make a program similar to photoshop and he described how he can make it

Two weeks later … Peter Mattis Sent another message to some groups and asked them two Questions:

Suppose someone decided to write a graphical image manipulation program
(akin to photoshop). Out of curiousity (and maybe something else), I have a
few (2) questions:

What kind of features should it have? (tools, selections, filters, etc.)
What file formats should it support? (jpeg, gif, tiff, etc.)

at November 1995 … the first beta release was available as “General Image Manipulation Program”
now known as “GIMP”

but when Released GIMP 1.0.0 … the name changed to “GNU Image Manipulation Program”

till now … they reached to GIMP 2.5.1 Unstable Release which was released just two days later
Here they are working towards the next stable release, which will be GIMP 2.6.
i don’t want to talk much about GIMP History, so if you are interested in reading it, you can just enter this link

—————————————————

that’s all … we’re going to stop here …. and the next lesson we’ll start Using GIMP 😀

so please be ready and download it

see you next lesson

goodbye

Overview about Linux

June 16, 2008

History Stuff:-

Early in 1970 at AT&T Bell labs a team leaded by ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie made the UNIX operating system for the PDP-7 machines which was completely written in the PDP-7 assembly and it was multiuser multitasking operating system and also included initial text processing system then later in 1973 the UNIX was first written in C programming language .

The UNIX operating system was free and open source and it helped to develop so many other UNIX-Based operating systems like the BSD and the Sun OS which became Solaris now but in 1983 when a system administrator in MIT his name was Richard Stallman received a UNIX copy which was UNIX-System V without it’s source code and he couldn’t obtain it until he signed a Non-Disclosure Agreement NDA which made the source code useless, so he decided to start a project to develop a new UNIX-Like operating system written from scratch and it will be free software. this project is called GNU (Gnu’s Not UNIX) – yes it’s a self referencing acronym SRA – and it was started in 1984 by Richard Stallman after he had resigned from MIT.

Gnu’s developers made a lot of tools for the new OS like :-

  • GCC: the gnu C compiler
  • Glib: gnu library
  • Bash: command line interpreter

But unfortunately the kernel wasn’t finished (it was finished in late 1990s and it called Hurd but Linux was already thriving) so they used the kernel that Linus Thorvald made.

Linus Thorvald also managed to combine the GNU C compiler with the new kernel and the first version of the Linux kernel was announced in September 1991 and it was rapidly developed since that till now.

Why Linux?

Everybody will ask now why should we use Linux? So, I’ll try to list the advantages of Linux quickly which are:-

  • Open source operating system.
  • It’s multiuser multitasking operating system.
  • Very secure.
  • High performance.

And so many other features but the most important one is that Linux is open source under the GPL (Gnu General Public License) read more about it from here

Linux has so many distributions which also called Linux flavors and among all of these distros there is only three major distros which are (Debian, Red Hat and Slackware) and most of the other distros are based on these ones. So, we will try to cover these three distros in any topic we will post to guarantee that your favorite flavor is included.

In the next post we will get down to work with Linux and we will start with the Installation. So, keep it up 😀